OSS使用教程

OSS(Operation Support Systems)系统即操作支持系统,是电信业务开展和运营时所必需的支撑平台。

对象存储(Object Storage Service,简称OSS),是阿里云对外提供的海量、安全和高可靠的云存储服务。

开始使用阿里云OSS

https://www.alibabacloud.com/help/zh/doc-detail/31883.htm

一.开发一个APP上传服务,需要有存储的支持,那么我们的解决方案将以下几种:

1. 1  直接将图片保存到服务的硬盘

  1. 1. 优点:开发便捷,成本低
  2. 2. 缺点:扩容困难

1.2  使用分布式文件系统进行存储

  1. 1. 优点:容易实现扩容
  2. 2. 缺点:开发复杂度稍大(尤其是开发复杂的功能)

1.3  使用nfs做存储

  1. 1. 优点:开发较为便捷
  2. 2. 缺点:需要有一定的运维知识进行部署和维护

1.4  使用第三方的存储服务

  1. 1. 优点:开发简单,拥有强大功能,免维护
  2. 2. 缺点:付费

在这我们采用第一、四解决方案,第三方服务选用阿里云的OSS服务。

二.配置

2.1  导入依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.aliyun.oss</groupId>
    <artifactId>aliyun-sdk-oss</artifactId>
    <version>2.8.3</version>
</dependency>

2.2   编写aliyun.properties配置文件

aliyun.endpoint=
aliyun.accessKeyId=
aliyun.accessKeySecret=
aliyun.bucketName=
aliyun.urlPrefix=

2.3   编写AliyunConfig

@Configuration
@PropertySource(value = {"classpath:aliyun.properties"})
@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "aliyun")
@Data
public class AliyunConfig {
    private String endpoint;
    private String accessKeyId;
    private String accessKeySecret;
    private String bucketName;
    private String urlPrefix;
    @Bean
    public OSS oSSClient() {
    return new OSSClient(endpoint, accessKeyId, accessKeySecret);
    }
}

三.文件上传(图片,APP)

3.1 图片

// 允许上传的格式
private static final String[] IMAGE_TYPE = new String[]{".bmp", ".jpg",
".jpeg", ".gif", ".png"};

 3.2 APP-OSS

/**
     * APK上传到阿里云oss
     *
     * @param request
     * @return
     */
    //  @RequestMapping(value = "/upload", method = RequestMethod.POST)
    @ResponseBody
    public Map<String, Object> upload(HttpServletRequest request) {
        try {
            MultipartHttpServletRequest fileRequest = (MultipartHttpServletRequest) request;
            MultipartFile file = fileRequest.getFile("file");
            InputStream inputStream = file.getInputStream();
            String name = file.getOriginalFilename();
            systemOperLogWrite.systemLogWrite("上传文件", SystemOperLog.LOG_TYPE_INSERT, systemOperLogWrite.objectToString(name));
            //本地判断是否存在
            String localMd5 = AliyunOSSClientUtil.getLocalMd5(file);
            AppVersionVo vo = new AppVersionVo();
            vo.setMd5(localMd5);
            List<AppVersionEntity> appVersionEntities = appVersionDubboService.findByVo(vo);
            if (CollectionUtils.isNotEmpty(appVersionEntities)) {
                return ResultUtil.getFailResJson("该版本已存在", AcsConstent.BACK_FAILED_CODE);
            }
            String keyNeme = "";
            if (StringUtils.isBlank(name)) {
                return ResultUtil.getFailResJson("文件名不能为空");
            }
            if (name.endsWith(AcsConstent.APP.endWithName)) {
                keyNeme = AcsConstent.APP.startFileName + StringUtils.getUUID() + AcsConstent.APP.endWithName;
            } else {
                return ResultUtil.getFailResJson(AcsConstent.APP.uploaFileNameError, AcsConstent.BACK_FAILED_CODE);
            }
            long size = 1;
            if (file.getSize() > AcsConstent.INT_NUM_KB) {
                size = file.getSize() / AcsConstent.INT_NUM_KB / AcsConstent.INT_NUM_KB;
            }
            // String bucketName = "aiot-face-image";
            SystemConfigEntity systemConfigField = systemConfigDubboService.getSystemConfigField(Constants.Aliyun_BucketName);
            String bucketName = systemConfigField.getValue();
            // Endpoint以杭州为例,其它Region请按实际情况填写
            // String endpoint = "http://oss-cn-shenzhen.aliyuncs.com";
            SystemConfigEntity systemConfigField1 = systemConfigDubboService.getSystemConfigField(Constants.Aliyun_Endpoint);
            String endpoint = systemConfigField1.getValue();
            SystemConfigEntity accessKey = systemConfigDubboService.getSystemConfigField(Constants.Aliyun_AccessKeyId);
            String accessKeyId = accessKey.getValue();
            SystemConfigEntity accessSecret = systemConfigDubboService.getSystemConfigField(Constants.Aliyun_AccessKeySecret);
            String accessKeySecret = AESUtil.aesDecrypt(accessSecret.getValue(), AcsConstent.APP.AccessKeySecret_DecryptKey);
            // 创建OSSClient实例
            OSSClient ossClient = new OSSClient(endpoint, accessKeyId, accessKeySecret);
            // 文件大小
            ObjectMetadata metadata = new ObjectMetadata();
            // 上传的文件的长度
            metadata.setContentLength(inputStream.available());
            // 指定该Object被下载时的网页的缓存行为
            metadata.setCacheControl("no-cache");
            // 指定该Object下设置Header
            metadata.setHeader("Pragma", "no-cache");
            // 指定该Object被下载时的内容编码格式
            metadata.setContentEncoding("utf-8");
            // 文件的MIME,定义文件的类型及网页编码,决定浏览器将以什么形式、什么编码读取文件。如果用户没有指定则根据Key或文件名的扩展名生成
            // 如果没有扩展名则填默认值application/octet-stream
            metadata.setContentType(AliyunOSSClientUtil.getContentType(name));
            // 指定该Object被下载时的名称(指示MINME用户代理如何显示附加的文件,打开或下载,及文件名称)
            PutObjectResult putResult = ossClient.putObject(bucketName, keyNeme, inputStream, metadata);
            String eTag = putResult.getETag();
            // 关闭OSSClient
            ossClient.shutdown();
            Date expiration = new Date(System.currentTimeMillis() + AcsConstent.APP.EXPIRE_DAY);
            String url = ossClient.generatePresignedUrl(bucketName, keyNeme, expiration).toString();
            JSONObject jsonObject = new JSONObject();
            jsonObject.put("url", url);
            jsonObject.put("MD5", eTag);
            jsonObject.put("appSize", size);
            return StringUtils.isNotBlank(url) ? ResultUtil.getSuccessResJson("data", jsonObject.toString()) : ResultUtil.getFailResJson("上传失败", "1");
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.info("上传文件失败###################{}", e);
        }
        return null;
    }

3.2 APP-服务器

@RequestMapping(value = "/upload", method = RequestMethod.POST)
    @ResponseBody
    public Map<String, Object> uploadApk(HttpServletRequest request) {
        FileOutputStream fileOutputStream = null;
        InputStream inputStream = null;
        try {
            MultipartHttpServletRequest fileRequest = (MultipartHttpServletRequest) request;
            MultipartFile file = fileRequest.getFile("file");
            inputStream = file.getInputStream();
            String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
 
            //本地判断是否存在
            String localMd5 = AliyunOSSClientUtil.fileToMd5(file);
            JSONObject checkJson = checkPamams(localMd5, fileName);
            if (checkJson != null) {
                return checkJson;
            }
            long size = 1;
            if (file.getSize() > AcsConstent.INT_NUM_KB) {
                size = file.getSize() / AcsConstent.INT_NUM_KB / AcsConstent.INT_NUM_KB;
            }
 
            String downloadFileUrl = redisOperatorManager.getValue("upload.file.url", CommonConstants.SYSTEM_CONFIG_REDIS_INDEX, "http://%s:%s/acs-admin/system/fileManager/downloadFileByKey?key=%s");
            downloadFileUrl = String.format(downloadFileUrl, host, port, localMd5);
            String fileUploadPath = fileUploadBasePath + File.separator + "app";
            File fileUploadPathFile = new File(fileUploadPath);
            if (!fileUploadPathFile.exists()) {
                fileUploadPathFile.mkdirs();
            }
            //新文件名为md5值
            String keyName = localMd5 + AcsConstent.APP.endWithName;
            String fileUploadFileName = fileUploadPath + File.separator + keyName;
            File fileUploadFile = new File(fileUploadFileName);
            if (!fileUploadFile.exists()) {
                fileUploadFile.createNewFile();
            }
            fileOutputStream = new FileOutputStream(fileUploadFile);
            IOUtils.copy(inputStream, fileOutputStream);
 
            JSONObject jsonObject = new JSONObject();
            jsonObject.put("url", downloadFileUrl);
            jsonObject.put("MD5", localMd5);
            jsonObject.put("appSize", size);
            jsonObject.put("originalFilename", fileName);
 
            FileUploadVo fileUploadVo = new FileUploadVo();
            fileUploadVo.setFilePath(fileUploadPath);
            fileUploadVo.setFileName(keyName);
            fileUploadVo.setMd5(localMd5);
            //通知
            notifyFileUploadZk(fileUploadVo);
 
            systemOperLogWrite.systemLogWrite("上传文件", SystemOperLog.LOG_TYPE_INSERT, jsonObject.toJSONString());
            return ResultUtil.getSuccessResJson("data", jsonObject.toString());
        } catch (RuntimeException e){
            logger.info("运行时抛出异常###################{}", e);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.info("上传文件失败###################{}", e);
        } finally {
            IOUtils.closeQuietly(fileOutputStream);
            IOUtils.closeQuietly(inputStream);
        }
        return ResultUtil.getFailResJson("上传失败", "1");
    }

OSS的简单使用

OSS简介

Object Storage Service,简称 OSS,是阿里云提供的海量、安全、低成本、高可靠的云存储服务。

它具有与平台无关的RESTful API接口,能够提供99.999999999%的服务持久性。

使用场景:

  • 图片分享
  • 热点视频

优势:

  • 成本低(40G才6元,比ECS便宜太多)
  • 不会影响ECS带宽
  • 和服务器解耦

下面介绍一些基本功能:

  • 初始化
  • 创建存储空间
  • 上传文件
  • 跨域访问设置
  • 设置读写权限

OSS使用(NET SDK使用)

1.初始化

创建一个OssClient,就可以很方便的调用OSS的方法。

       const string accessKeyId = "xxxxxxxxx";				    
       const string accessKeySecret = "xxxxxxxxxx"; 
       const string endpoint = "oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com";			//OSS对应的区域地址
       private static OssClient ossClient = new OssClient(endpoint, accessKeyId, accessKeySecret);

2.创建存储空间

很简单,只需要调用OssClient.CreateBucket

   ossClient.CreateBucket("myBucket");		//新建一个Bucket

3.设置读写权限

调用OssClient.SetBucketAcl

   ossClient.SetBucketAcl("myBucket", CannedAccessControlList.PublicRead);	//设置为公共读

CannedAccessControlList有三个属性:Private(私有),PublicRead(公共读),PublicReadWrite(公共读写)

4.跨域访问设置

调用OssClient.SetBucketCors

   var req = new SetBucketCorsRequest("myBucket");
   var rule = new CORSRule();
   //指定允许跨域请求的来源
   rule.AddAllowedOrigin("*");
   //指定允许的跨域请求方法(GET/PUT/DELETE/POST/HEAD)
   rule.AddAllowedMethod("POST");
   //控制在OPTIONS预取指令中Access-Control-Request-Headers头中指定的header是否允许。
   rule.AddAllowedHeader("*");

   req.AddCORSRule(rule);
   ossClient.SetBucketCors(req);

5.上传文件

调用OssClient.PutObject

   var result = ossClient.PutObject("myBucket", "111.mp4", @"d:\237badef-0f6d-4a8e-a634-a44c9704b6e6.mp4");
   Console.WriteLine(result.ETag);

6.列出存储空间中的所有文件

调用ossClient.ListObjects

   var listObjectsRequest = new ListObjectsRequest("myBucket");
   var result = ossClient.ListObjects(listObjectsRequest);
   Console.WriteLine("List objects succeeded");
   foreach (var summary in result.ObjectSummaries)
   {
       Console.WriteLine("File name:{0}", summary.Key);
   }

以上步骤1到4,可以在OSS管理后端完成

WEB端直传

刚开始使用OSS的时候,是采用前端将文件流上传到Web服务器,然后通过Web服务器再上传到OSS

这种做法有三个缺点:

  • 第一:上传慢。先上传到应用服务器,再上传到OSS,网络传送多了一倍。如果数据直传到OSS,不走应用服务器,速度将大大提升,而且OSS是采用BGP带宽,能保证各地各运营商的速度。
  • 第二:扩展性不好。如果后续用户多了,应用服务器会成为瓶颈。
  • 第三:费用高。由于OSS上传流量是免费的。如果数据直传到OSS,不走应用服务器,那么将能省下几台应用服务器

如何操作?

1.通过JS控件直传

  • 采用plupload 直接提交表单数据(即PostObject)到OSS;
  • 在JS端,输入OSS的认证信息(不安全)
   var policyText = {
       "expiration": "2020-01-01T12:00:00.000Z", //设置该Policy的失效时间,超过这个失效时间之后,就没有办法通过这个policy上传文件了
       "conditions": [
       ["content-length-range", 0, 1048576000] // 设置上传文件的大小限制
       ]
   };

   accessid= '6MKOqxGiGU4AUk44';
   accesskey= 'ufu7nS8kS59awNihtjSonMETLI0KLy';
   host = 'http://post-test.oss-cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com';

   var policyBase64 = Base64.encode(JSON.stringify(policyText))
   message = policyBase64
   var bytes = Crypto.HMAC(Crypto.SHA1, message, accesskey, { asBytes: true }) ;
   var signature = Crypto.util.bytesToBase64(bytes);
   var uploader = new plupload.Uploader({
   	runtimes : 'html5,flash,silverlight,html4',
   	browse_button : 'selectfiles', 
   	container: document.getElementById('container'),
   	flash_swf_url : 'lib/plupload-2.1.2/js/Moxie.swf',
   	silverlight_xap_url : 'lib/plupload-2.1.2/js/Moxie.xap',
       url : host,
   	multipart_params: {
   		'Filename': '${filename}', 
           'key' : '${filename}',
   		'policy': policyBase64,
           'OSSAccessKeyId': accessid, 
           'success_action_status' : '200', //让服务端返回200,不然,默认会返回204
   		'signature': signature,
   	},

   	init: {
   		PostInit: function() {
   			document.getElementById('ossfile').innerHTML = '';
   			document.getElementById('postfiles').onclick = function() {
   				uploader.start();
   				return false;
   			};
   		},

   		FilesAdded: function(up, files) {
   			plupload.each(files, function(file) {
   				document.getElementById('ossfile').innerHTML += '<div id="' + file.id + '">' + file.name + ' (' + plupload.formatSize(file.size) + ')<b></b>'
   				+'<div class="progress"><div class="progress-bar" style="width: 0%"></div></div>'
   				+'</div>';
   			});
   		},

   		UploadProgress: function(up, file) {
   			var d = document.getElementById(file.id);
   			d.getElementsByTagName('b')[0].innerHTML = '<span>' + file.percent + "%</span>";
​               
               var prog = d.getElementsByTagName('div')[0];
   			var progBar = prog.getElementsByTagName('div')[0]
   			progBar.style.width= 2*file.percent+'px';
   			progBar.setAttribute('aria-valuenow', file.percent);
   		},

   		FileUploaded: function(up, file, info) {
               //alert(info.status)
               if (info.status >= 200 || info.status < 200)
               {
                   document.getElementById(file.id).getElementsByTagName('b')[0].innerHTML = 'success';
               }
               else
               {
                   document.getElementById(file.id).getElementsByTagName('b')[0].innerHTML = info.response;
               } 
   		},

   		Error: function(up, err) {
   			document.getElementById('console').appendChild(document.createTextNode("\nError xml:" + err.response));
   		}
   	}
   });

   uploader.init();

具体可以下载OSS官网的 [例子]:https://help.aliyun.com/document_detail/31925.html?spm=a2c4g.11186623.6.629.AdgPho

2.通过服务端构建认证信息(安全,参看下一小节)

服务端构建认证信息

上一小节中,通过JS来上传文件,虽然可以上传,但是AppSecret会泄露,不安全。所以需要在服务端将认证信息构建出来,再给到前端

        public virtual ActionResult GetPostPolicy()
        {
            string host = "http://" + bucket + "."+ endpoint;
            //第一步,构造policy
            //var dir = "zhangsan/";//设置用户上传指定的前缀,必须以斜线结尾
            var expiration = DateTime.Now.AddMinutes(100);
            var policyConds = new PolicyConditions();
            //policyConds.AddConditionItem(MatchMode.StartWith, PolicyConditions.CondKey, dir);//上传目录
            policyConds.AddConditionItem(PolicyConditions.CondContentLengthRange, 1, 1048576000);//允许上传的文件大小限制
            var postPolicy = ossClient.GeneratePostPolicy(expiration, policyConds);//给policyConds添加过期时间并json序列化(格式iso8601:"yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.fff'Z'")
    
            //第二步 将policy 的json字符串进行base64编码
            var base64Policy = Convert.ToBase64String(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(postPolicy));
    
            //第三步,生成签名
            var signature = ComputeSignature(accessKeySecret, base64Policy);//生成签名
    
            //以下返回给前端
            TimeSpan ts = expiration - new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0);
            var expire = Convert.ToInt64(ts.TotalSeconds);
    
            Dictionary<string, object> response = new Dictionary<string, object>();
            response["accessid"] = accessKeyId;
            response["host"] = host;
            response["policy"] = base64Policy;
            response["signature"] = signature;
            response["expire"] = expire;
            return ResponseSuccess(response);		//返回json,可以自己修改(该方法是自己封装的)
        }

        private static string ComputeSignature(string key, string data)
        {
            using (var algorithm = KeyedHashAlgorithm.Create("HmacSHA1".ToUpperInvariant()))
            {
                algorithm.Key = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(key.ToCharArray());
                return Convert.ToBase64String(
                    algorithm.ComputeHash(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(data.ToCharArray())));
            }
        }

再结合刚才的前端,修改如下

<script type="text/javascript">
    var  accessid= '';
    var host = 'http://muBucket.oss-cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com';
    var policyBase64 = '';
    var signature = '';
    var uploadFileName='';			//文件名称
    //获取随机字符串
    function random_string(len) {
        len = len || 32;
        var chars = 'ABCDEFGHJKMNPQRSTWXYZabcdefhijkmnprstwxyz2345678';
        var maxPos = chars.length;
        var pwd = '';
        for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
            pwd += chars.charAt(Math.floor(Math.random() * maxPos));
        }
        return pwd;
    }
    //获取文件后缀名
    function get_suffix(filename) {
        var pos = filename.lastIndexOf('.')
        suffix = ''
        if (pos != -1) {
            suffix = filename.substring(pos)
        }
        return suffix;
    }
    //设置plupload属性
    function set_upload_param(up, filename, ret)
    {
        var suffix='';
        if (filename != '') {
            suffix = get_suffix(filename)
        }else{
            return;
        }
        uploadFileName=random_string(20)+suffix;
        new_multipart_params = {
            'key' : uploadFileName,
            'policy': policyBase64,
            'OSSAccessKeyId': accessid,
            'success_action_status' : '200', //让服务端返回200,不然,默认会返回204
            'signature': signature,
        };
        up.setOption({
            'url': host,
            'multipart_params': new_multipart_params
        });
        up.start();
    }
    //初始化plupload控件
    var uploader = new plupload.Uploader({
        runtimes : 'html5,flash,silverlight,html4',
        browse_button : 'selectfiles',
        container: document.getElementById('container'),
        flash_swf_url : 'lib/plupload-2.1.2/js/Moxie.swf',
        silverlight_xap_url : 'lib/plupload-2.1.2/js/Moxie.xap',
        multi_selection:false,
        filters: {
            mime_types : [
                { title : "Video files", extensions : "mp4,rmvb" }
            ],
            max_file_size : '600000kb', //最大只能上传600M的文件
            prevent_duplicates : true //不允许选取重复文件
        },
        url : host,
        init: {
            PostInit: function() {
                document.getElementById('ossfile').innerHTML = '';
                $.ajax({
                    type:'GET',
                    url:'GetPostPolicyURL',		//获取认证信息的URL
                    success:function(res){
                        if(res.rspcode==="0000"){
                            accessid = res.accessid;
                            host = res.host;
                            policyBase64 =res.policy;
                            signature =res.signature;

                        }else{
                            /* 弹出框提示错误 */
                            toastr.error(res.rspmsg);
                        }
                    }
                })
            },

            FilesAdded: function(up, files) {
                plupload.each(files, function(file) {
                    set_upload_param(up, file.name, true);
                    document.getElementById('ossfile').innerHTML += '<div id="' + file.id + '">' + file.name + ' (' + plupload.formatSize(file.size) + ')<b></b>'
                        +'<div class="progress"><div class="progress-bar" style="width: 0%"></div></div>'
                        +'</div>';
                });
            },

            BeforeUpload: function(up, file) {

            },

            UploadProgress: function(up, file) {
                var d = document.getElementById(file.id);
                d.getElementsByTagName('b')[0].innerHTML = '<span>' + file.percent + "%</span>";

                var prog = d.getElementsByTagName('div')[0];
                var progBar = prog.getElementsByTagName('div')[0]
                progBar.style.width= 2*file.percent+'px';
                progBar.setAttribute('aria-valuenow', file.percent);
            },

            FileUploaded: function(up, file, info) {
                if (info.status >= 200 || info.status < 200)
                {
                    vm.formModel.VideoPath=uploadFileName;			//将文件名记录下来,用于保存
                    document.getElementById(file.id).getElementsByTagName('b')[0].innerHTML = 'success';
                }
                else
                {
                    document.getElementById(file.id).getElementsByTagName('b')[0].innerHTML = info.response;
                }
            },

            Error: function(up, err) {
                document.getElementById('console').appendChild(document.createTextNode("\nError xml:" + err.response));
            }
        }
    });

    uploader.init();

</script>

参考文章:

[OSS官网文档]:https://help.aliyun.com/document_detail/31817.html?spm=a2c4g.11186623.6.539.PK7qiJ

作者:

喜欢围棋和编程。

 
发布于 分类 编程标签

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。